News Archive
2003 Forum
Working Groups
great apes
2022 Namibia workshop
2019 Ngamiland workshop
2018 Workshop
2017 Workshop
2016 workshop
Phakalane Dec
Phakalane Workshop 2012
TFCAs and TADs
Pilansberg Res
Manhattan Principles
WPC Abstracts and Multimedia
agenda abstracts biographies groups invitation launch proceedings

"Impacts of Wildlife Infections on Human and Livestock Health with Special Reference to Tanzania: Implications for Protected Area Management"

Sarah Cleaveland, Karen Laurenson, Titus Mlengeya

Microbial pathogens are integral components of natural ecosystems and play an important role in the evolution and ecology of host communities. However, the growth of human population and expansion of human activities has affected contact and transmission patterns between human and animal populations, leading to the emergence of several major diseases that affect human health, livestock economies and wildlife conservation.

Zoonotic pathogens, particularly those that infect wildlife, pose a particular risk for human disease emergence (relative risk for zoonoses = 1.97; for pathogens infecting wildlife =2.44). Zoonotic diseases associated with wildlife, such as sleeping sickness and anthrax, also pose a potential threat to the tourist sector, which is a major source of foreign exchange in many African countries. Wild animal populations are often implicated as reservoirs of emerging zoonoses, but we have little knowledge of the infection dynamics of these diseases in wildlife, which limits the options and effectiveness of disease control.

Infections in wildlife also have major implications for livestock development in areas adjacent to wildlife (protected) areas. Most livestock pathogens (54%) can also co-infect wildlife. Where wild populations are the source of disease for livestock, land-use conflicts invariably arise, typified by problems associated with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in East Africa and foot-and-mouth disease in southern Africa. MCF has been a major factor contributing to the decline in livestock production in pastoralist communities living in and around protected areas of East Africa, leading to a growing demand for cultivation, a form of land-use generally incompatible with wildlife conservation. In other resource-poor communities, a deteriorating livestock production base, exacerbated by diseases transmitted from wildlife, has also fuelled a growth in illegal wildlife hunting to meet growing demands for both dietary protein and cash income.

Options to control infection in wildlife are limited and current strategies, such as culling and movement restriction, have major negative repercussions on wild populations. The engagement of wildlife managers in issues relating to both public health and livestock development is therefore crucial in order to develop effective and appropriate strategies for disease control.


Audio of presentation
(MP3, 13 MB)

Video of presentation (Quicktime):
Part 1 (29 MB)
Part 2 (38 MB)

PDF of slides

JPG Slideshow
(viewable online)


Biography for
Sarah Cleaveland

Home/News | News Archive | IUCN 2003 World Parks Congress AHEAD Launch Forum

AHEAD Working Groups
Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area | Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) | Great Apes | Zambia | Namibia
KAZA TFCA Animal Health Sub-Working Group

AHEAD on the Radio | AHEAD Webcasts | AHEAD Podcasts | AHEAD in Print | SADC-AHEAD Guidelines on CBT | FMD Bulletin | Links

2022 Namibia MAWLR-MEFT Workshop | 2019 Ngamiland CBT Gap Analysis Workshop | 2018 Botswana DVS Workshop
2017 DVS-AHEAD Maun Workshop | 2016 KAZA-AHEAD-FAO Workshop
Phakalane Declaration | 2012 SADC/AHEAD Phakalane Workshop | 2008 SADC Regional 'TFCAs & TADs' Forum
SADC Regional Biodiversity Strategy | Pilanesberg Resolution | Manhattan Principles | Contact

Copyright © 2004–2023 Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine